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Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Sunday, 7 January 2018

An addiction is never a healthy thing, and whatever is mentioned in this list or not, let it be clear that no addiction is desirable. Addictions are by definition a state in which one is physically or mentally dependent on a certain habit or substance (usually usually a substance) and such a dependency is seldom favorable for the person himself or for his or her environment. This is mainly because someone who has an addiction will be (and her) mainly and almost exclusively busy to get the desired substance or behavior. All other actions (from work to family interactions) will be negligible, because an addict puts his addiction above everything else.

Addiction is something unfavorable, but how unfavorable, of course, depends entirely on the addiction. Some people say that they are "addicted" to coffee (the writer of this text, for example), but even if it were that way (even though I would spend my entire life in the sign of coffee) then such an addiction is not directly life-threatening. The same addiction for, for example, heroin would be a lot more problematic.

How bad an addiction is, of course, differs per person. Some people really only have their own, because they have few friends or family whose lives can make them sour. Others have much more impact on their environment. However, we can not take this into account in these top ten. This top ten is about the 'dependency factor' of drugs. Because such a matter depends on many things, 'scales' have been made that take into account as many of these factors as possible. So it depends on the side effects of stopping the drug intake, the rewards that an addict gets when he (they) takes the drug, the tolerance (this means that an addict has to take more and more of the stuff to the same satisfaction. received), the dependence of the substance in question and finally the toxicity (toxicity) of the drugs. Usually we score drugs on a scale of 1 to 3, with 3 being the most persistent, and 1 the least. Caffeine scores almost 1 on such a scale, but that is not the subject of this top ten. Here we look at the most persistent, harmful and destructive drug available.

In making this list we used data from a report by Professor David Nutt, a government consultant who tried to set up a drug rankings in 2009. Among other things, he looked at the physical and mental damage per drugs to which a drug exposes the user and his environment, but also to the dependency or addictiveness of the drugs in question. We used this last score as a source for our article. The RIVM published a different list, in 2009, but the ranking in that list looks very different, because it includes 'social damage' and the toxicity of the substance. We wanted to let this list go purely and exclusively about dependence or 'addictiveness', and the RIVM data regarding this aspect are consistent with David Nutt's findings. Crack and cocaine we have taken together, because this is the same substance, although it is used differently

Incidentally, we are talking about substance-addiction, which means that we concentrate on substances that do something with your body. Some people are addicted to computer games, sex, or gambling, but we have not included this kind of addictions in this top ten.

10. Ketamine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Ketamine is a relatively recently developed substance, and is also known under the names Keta, Special K or simply K. It was designed by Craig Newlands at the University of Wayne, and first manufactured by Calvin Stevens, in 1962. Most drugs are much older, but Ketamine, despite its status as 'young', is not a drug to take lightly.

That is to say, maybe it is! Because Ketamine was initially used as an anesthetic (a means that brings relief to the user). In addition, it is an antidepressant and it induces a kind of trance. It was first used on a large scale in prisons, as early as 1964, and these tests showed that it is a fabric of powerful but short-lived caliber. It was also used in the Vietnam War by American soldiers, as an anesthetic. It was not until the 1970s that it was 'discovered' as a recreational drug. Especially in so-called 'raves' (drug-supported parties) and as club drugs it became known, but it works slightly differently than most other club drugs. Ketamine, in fact, paralyzes pain, while other club drugs do not work that way, but are actually stimulating. Keta has therefore become more a post-party drug.

Street value: For Ketamine you pay about 30 to 40 euros per gram.

Dependence score: 1.54

Operation and method of use: Ketamine is usually snorted. It is a powder that resembles snuff-coke (cocaine, see later in this list), and has, like cocaine, a bitter taste. The effects of anesthesia take place a few minutes to just a quarter of an hour after intake and the 'trip' takes about an hour, usually. For faster action you can also inject liquid Ketamine, but with spraying there are always many risks for other diseases, and so this is now a less popular medium.

In low doses, Ketamine is simply stimulating, but in higher doses it also acts as a hallucinating agent. People usually say that they are either idolate or hate the stuff. A middle way is rarely there.

Incidentally, Ketamine is still used as an anesthetic in animals. The dust is not just bad! In moderation it is a pretty effective anesthetic. Provided you do not become addicted. Read more...

9. Buprenorphine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: The official name of buprenorphine is RX6029, but because such a name does not taste good, it quickly became buprenorphine. Still a mouth full, but good. It was finally synthesized in 1969 after ten years of research and was originally produced as an alternative to morphine that was less addictive. Of these types of well-meant alternatives, there are still more to be found in this list, incidentally. Well, it was well-meant, that in any case!

In 1978 it was used for the first time as a regular remedy for severe pain. Nowadays it is a permitted anesthetic against opiate addiction, it is in fact a much less harmful drug than other opiates, and also less addictive. Less addictive, but still, the average person is pretty dependent! If you have to choose between this stuff and morphine, then it is an improvement, but it is better not to go for this category of medication at all, if it is possible to avoid it ...

Dependence score: 1.64

How it works and how it is used: Buprenorphine is a fairly unknown substance as a drug, but is no less harmful in the long term. It is an opiate, which means that it falls into the same family as heroin, and has an anesthetic effect. It is an antagonist in certain brain receptors and thus disturbs the balance in your brain. That is rarely a good thing.

Buprenorphine, however, has a good side, because it is a strong and effective painkiller. Although it is a lot better to be addicted to this stuff than to other opiates, it is still a substance that you do not have to joke with. However, there are worse drugs in circulation ...

8. Amphetamine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Also called trunk, speed, rapapa or split. There is not one kind of amphetamine, but many variants (dextro-, metha-, etc.). It was first produced in 1887, and in 1927 it was discovered that it provided relief from asthma and bronchitis, and therefore it was given as a medicine in inhalers. However, it soon became known that it was not really beneficial for the patients in question. It was then used as a weapon of war in the thirties, and ten years later it was experienced how dramatically the side effects of amphetamines really were. This dust was attributed to soldiers in the war, to keep them alert. A better form of coffee, as it were. After the war they turned out to have all kinds of heart complaints, and not a little soldier had also developed an addiction to the dust. Still, it remained available on prescription until the sixties. Only after it became a much-used (and abused) party drug, it was banned on the legal market and it was welcomed in the illegal market.

Nowadays amphetamine powder occurs in many concentrations, 73% being the highest, but the average is closer to 40% light.

Street value: on average 6 euros per gram, although this will change strongly. It depends on the quality, but also on the dealer himself. A high price does not necessarily mean that the stuff is of good quality. Not that we want to promote drug dealing here, but if you're in the circuit anyway, make sure you are sure of your dealer and his or her material. Better still, let it test! That is possible, in the Netherlands ...

Dependence score: 1.67

How it works and how it is used: Amphetamine is usually smoked as a powder. With a small spoon or a key-tip one takes a bit of the dust out of the package and sniffs it up, as if it is air (or a snob bubble). Whatever is possible, there is a package to make (a bomb) and this swallowing. That prevents the burning sensation in the nose when sniffing. However, sniffing is much faster, because the working substance is already absorbed in the mucous membranes of the nose. You will notice the effect within a few minutes. It then acts as a sleep-dehumidifying and stimulant, and as such is 'suitable' as a party drug. It has a fairly long operation of four to eight hours, depending on the quality of the goods.

People become addicted to amphetamine because lack of the stuff makes them sleepless and restless. Lustleness, lack of hunger and thirst are post-effects of amphetamine, after your trip you are not to burn, and the only possibility to get back on track is to take a next shot. It can also lead to delusional images, and physical complaints such as heart and liver failure, in case of overuse or in chronic use.

7. Benzodiazepine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Benzodiazepines, also known as 'benzo's' for convenience, is a category name that includes several substances that all have more or less the same structure, and bring about a psychoactive effect on the brain. The first benzo was Chloradiazepoxide (also known under the brand name Librium), and this substance was 'accidentally' discovered in 1955 by Leo Sternback. It was made available (less by accident) for use by the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche in 1960 and another benzo variety has been sold since 1963 under the much more famous name Valium (diazepam, another benzo with the same effect).

Dependence score: 1.83

How it works and how it is used: Benzo's work on our neurotransmitters (substances in our brains that have the task to transmit signals) and as a result of use the user of benzo's is numb, somewhat hypnotized (one dies in a kind of sleep state) and touches in a state of total relaxation. The stuff is therefore ideally suited as a treatment for anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, muscle cramps and in some cases alcohol withdrawal. For short-term use, benzo's are generally safe, although in the long term cognitive damage or aggression can sometimes be developed by the user. Over time, these problems become more likely and more severe, and in addition, the user builds up a sort of psychic dependence on the stuff, making it dangerously addictive. Not something to use, unless you absolutely need it ...

6. Alcohol

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Alcohol is one of the oldest drugs known to us people, and while most drugs in this list are from the last few centuries, alcohol has been an addictive drug since the time that humanity began to write things down on clay tablets! Alcohol is a fermentation product of barley (beer) or grapes (wine) or other vegetable organisms such as potatoes (vodka, for example) or sugar (rum). Yeasts (micro-organisms) convert the sugars in vegetable organisms into alcohol, and this stuff has a peculiar taste that we immediately recognize and experience as particularly pleasant in adulthood. Whether it really has to do with the taste, or with the subsequent feeling, is a different story. Presumably this differs per person.

Dependence score: 1.93

How it works and how it is used: how to use it ... well, we assume that most people know how alcohol is usually used. You drink a glass of beer, wine, vodka or I know what kind of mix drink and after a few drinks you become drunk.

Alcohol, like all drugs in this list, works on your brain. To be more precise, it numbs parts of your brain, which people often recognize as 'disinhibition'. Most people become busier and socially more courageous. The more one consumes, the more unrestrained one becomes, and it leads to self-overestimation, coordination and reaction loss and disorientation. Nausea and lack of a functioning memory are also consequences. In case of direct use it is possible that you die acutely, but chronic too much alcohol eventually leads to death, usually due to liver failure. The biggest problem with alcohol is that it is very addictive, and that in the normal social environment there is so much choice and possibility to grab alcohol that it is extremely difficult to kick. When are you not offered to grab a beer with study guests or colleagues, or to have a glass of wine with family or on a birthday? If you have heroin addiction, then you have a hard time, but in any case you are not confronted with a delicious injection in every advertising sheet. Alcohol addicts are!

5. Barbiturates

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Barbiturates are substances that have a dampening and anesthetic effect on our brains. They were discovered in 1863 by the German chemist Adolf van Baeyer and in 1903 they were sold for the first time under the brand name Veronal as a sleeping aid on the market. This is also the regular application of barbiturates, as sleep or sedative. However, one can also become addicted to it and in case of over-use it is a dangerous substance.

Dependence score: 2.01

Mode of action and method of use: As we said, barbiturates have a dampening and numbing effect on our brains. Over-use can lead to irreversible coma sleep and even death. So it is absolutely no dust to take lights. Fortunately, it is not a 'regular' drug, and although you can become addicted to it, it is not one of the common drugs that you will be offered on a rave. Fortunately, because it is a very addictive drug that you can hardly get rid of. As far as dependency is concerned, only four types of drugs are worse ...

4. Methadone

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Methadone is an opium-like substance. This means that it looks like opium, but it is not exactly opium. Methadone is a morphine mimic, and morphine is the stuff in opium that is most effective. Heroin is another species in the same category, we will treat it later. Methadone, however, is a malignant and benign substance at the same time. It is a lot (you) less dangerous than heroin, and is therefore sometimes used as a drug for heroin addicts. However, it still works on the brain, and is by no means innocent. It also works as an intense pain reliever, which is even effective when morphine is no longer present. The fabric was synthesized and patented by Bockmuhl and Ehrhart on 11 September 1941 and was marketed in 1947 under the name Dolophine.

Dependence score: 2.08

How it works and how it is used: Methadone is usually taken in pill form. Because people initially thought it was less addictive than heroin, it was used as a substitute and withdrawal agent, but it now appears that it is just as addictive as heroin. However, a phased reduction of methadone is quite possible, while that with heroin is not the case. So there are still reasons to be more addicted to methadone than to heroin. However, it is better to just not get to both fabrics at all. It can only lead to misery!

3. Nicotine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Perhaps this fabric is known to you. Probably. It is the addictive substance in cigarettes, cigars and other types and applications of tobacco. This substance is common in the tobacco plant and it is one of the reasons why smoking tobacco is so addictive. It also gives the narcotic effect to smoking.

The name comes simply from the Latin name for the tobacco plant, namely Nicotiana tabacum (exactly, tabacum later became our word tobacco). The plant is named after its discoverer, Jean Nicot (and indirectly the drug nicotine is also named after him). Already in 1828 the substance was isolated from the rest of the plant, by two German chemists, Posselt and Reiman, and in 1835 the chemical formula for the dust was first determined by Adolf Pinner. It is therefore one of the earliest researched drugs. Many centuries before that discovery, however, we already knew a long time ago about her side effects, and we smoked badly on them.

Incidentally, nicotine does not only occur in tobacco. Nicotine also occurs in other plants of the nightshade family (think, for example, of tomatoes, potatoes and aubergines). And also in the coca plant (see number two for more information about this plant!). However, in the tobacco plant and in dried tobacco, the concentration of nicotine is indeed much higher than in all these other plants. It makes little sense to smoke tomatoes, unfortunately for smoke addicts.

Dependence score: 2.21

Operation and method of use: The manner of use is actually very simple. Most people who are addicted to nicotine light a cigarette. A few older people among us want to get involved in a big Havana cigar and the oldest people still know tobacco for the plum (sabbling) or the pipe. Nowadays 'snus' is also known, this is a form of sucking or prune, but in this way of prunes the tobacco is neatly packaged in a saliva-permeable net. Snus users stuff this package behind their teeth and suck on it indefinitely.

Nicotine in pure form is colorless and oily, but unlike oil, it mixes very well with water. It can be extracted from tobacco leaves by soaking them for about twelve hours in water. It tastes bitter and can be inhaled when heated (like in a cigarette).

Nicotine is both mentally and physically addictive and the effect is equal to heroin and cocaine (more on this later!). Quitting smoking can cause withdrawal symptoms such as agitation, anxiety, sleep disturbance and headaches. After two to three weeks these symptoms decrease, provided you do not touch a cigarette all this time.

Meanwhile, nicotine smoking gives the user a stimulating and relaxing effect. Both relaxation and sharpening of attention, increased alertness, calm and hunger-suppressing effects are caused by nicotine. All very desirable reactions, and it is not surprising that so many people are now addicted to this fabric. However, many people prefer not to be reminded of the fact that nicotine stimulates tumor growth. In cooperation with other substances in a cigarette that are not too healthy (such as tar), it is not a healthy practice to smoke a lot.

2. Cocaine

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Cocaine is also known chemically as benzoylmethylecgonine, it is an alkaloid that comes from the leaves of the coca plant. An alkaloid is a group of substances that often act as an incentive, in other words: it stores the user. Other less harmful stimulants are caffeine, and nicotine (known from coffee or cigarettes). Cocaine, however, is slightly more harmful than these two substances.

The name cocaine comes simply from the original plant, the coca plant. For centuries before the drug was introduced in Europe, the South American indigenous peoples chewed on the coca leaves because of its stimulating and pain-suppressing effect. This is still happening, by the descendants of the former indigenous people. When the Spaniards originally "discovered" South America, they believed that the plant gave mystical strength and energy, but because this was something inexplicable, they found it a clear sign of Devil's work. After a while, however, they saw that there was a profit to be made, and a tax was quickly placed on the trade of the plant. In 1855, the active substance was isolated from the other substances present in the total plant. In 1898, the fabric was produced synthetically for the first time.

Street value: About 50 Euro per gram

Dependence score: 2.39

Mode of action and method of use: Recreational use of cocaine is usually caused by inhalation (coke sniffing). Sometimes it is also used by rich 'yuppies' who want to deliver great performances. A kind of super coffee, as it were.

Cocaine works as an inhibitor, which means that it suppresses certain substances in the brain. It particularly suppresses the reuptake of norepinephrine, and dopamine, in brain cells. Because of the increase in these substances your consciousness signals a feeling of extra alertness, joy, energy, competence and sometimes even sexuality. Usually this 'current surge' takes about fifteen to thirty minutes, and sometimes up to an hour. However, it is a rather addictive process, although that addiction is psychological in particular (you have an insatiable desire for this substance) and not so much physically. Read more...

1. Heroin

Top Ten Most Stubborn Drug Addictions

Name and origin: Heroin is a so-called opiate and is made from morphine. It is a colorless and odorless bitter substance or 'powder' and is very soluble in water. Originally, Heroin was introduced as a self-care medicine, called diacetyl morphine. The patente holding German pharmaceutical manufacturer Bayer brought this substance on the market under the name 'heroin' in 1898. Heroin is in fact not the real name for the fabric, only a 'brand' name (as 'Adidas' is a name for under other shoes). Incidentally, it was at that time an (apparently) less harmful alternative to morphine. It was also recommended as a non-addictive alternative, but this turned out to be wrong, heroin is even more addictive than morphine.

Heroin is made from poppy, a plant that was originally grown in the border area between Laos, Burma and Thailand. Today, the largest production takes place in the border area between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The poppy plant is one of the few vegetation that can grow in the poor grounds in the desert-like area in the region. That is why farmers in this region often see a profit in growing this plant, although it is not entirely legal to trade the products.

Street value: The so-called 'street value' of heroin has been smeared. In 2006, the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction measured this street value and estimated it to be 14.50 Euro per gram in Turkey, and a whopping 110 Euro in Sweden for the same teaspoon. This street heroin, however, is often very impure.

Dependency score: The dependency score for this drug is 3

Mode of action and method of use: Heroin is usually used via inhalation. Nowadays, the heroin user sprinkles some of the powder on a plate of aluminum foil and heats this plate so that the powder melts. The active substance changes into vapor, and this breathes the addict. By the way, heroin can also be administered by injections, but this is, in connection with fear of contaminated needles, a practice that is only used by the most desperate among addicts, nowadays. In the past, however, less was known about the risks of needle use and sharing needles with others, and many diseases have spread among heroin addicts like a fire thanks to the liberal needle use. In addition to spraying, you can also sniff up heroin directly. However, it is a rather dirty substance to smell, and this option is not very popular.

Heroin then works in the body as follows: Like other opiates, heroin works by 'after-stepping' an endorphin. Endorphins in your brain give you pain relief and the feeling of happiness. When you experience something pleasurable, cells in your brain repel endorphins, and they are registered by other parts of your brain, which you yourself perceive as a 'joyful feeling'. Heroin thus replicates this process. A problem with heroin, however, is that the receptors (which register endorphins) in your brain at some point adapt to the amount of endorphin-like substances in their environment. In the event of excessive use of heroin, the user must therefore administer increasing amounts to experience the same feeling of joy.

Heroin leads to constipation, it suppresses hunger feelings (whereby addicts are often chronically malnourished) and sometimes even leads to death, for example when too large a dose reduces the respiration so that suffocation can occur.

Because heroin is a fat-soluble substance, it can be absorbed into your system super-fast. The large amount of physical addiction, this fast action and the very detrimental withdrawal symptoms make this substance the most persistent drug in the world to be addicted to. Better you take a joint, or an extra glass of wine. Better still, you do not do any of them!

Finally, we do not want to be smart, but still have to say the following: do not try these drugs. Have you already been exposed to it, and you may not be able to stop as easily as you had previously thought: ask for medical help. No matter how bad you are, you can do this in the Netherlands. Do not hesitate to use it.

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